A black hole is a celestial body with such a strong gravitational pull that not even light can escape. Although his idea of a light-trapping object dates back to the 18th century, his first direct observation of a black hole was made in 2015.
Since then, physicists have conducted countless theoretical and experimental studies aimed at better understanding these fascinating cosmic objects. This has led to many discoveries and theories about the unique properties, characteristics and dynamics of black holes.
Researchers at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and Max-Planck-Institut für Physik recently conducted a theoretical study exploring the possible existence of vortices in black holes. their paper is physical review lettershows that black holes should theoretically be able to accommodate vortex structures.
“Recently, a new quantum framework for black holes has been introduced: the Bose-Einstein condensate of gravitons (a quantum of gravity itself),” says Florian Kuhnel, one of the researchers who conducted the work, in Phys. Organization “Until our article was published, spinning black holes were understudied within this framework. But they not only exist, they may be the rule rather than the exception. I have.”
Kühnel and his colleagues Gia Dvali and Michael Zantedeschi performed several calculations based on existing physical theories, in particular the recently devised quantum model of black holes based on the Bose-Einstein graviton condensate. did. The main goal of their research was to probe spinning black holes at the quantum level to determine whether they actually accept vortex structures.
“Rotating Bose-Einstein condensates have been studied intensively in the laboratory and are known to observe vortex structures if they spin fast enough,” said Kuhnel. “We took this as an invitation to look for those structures in models of rotating black holes as well, and we did find them.”
Kuhnel and his colleagues showed that a black hole with extreme spin can be described as a graviton condensate with vorticity. This is consistent with previous work suggesting that extreme black holes are stable to so-called Hawking evaporation (i.e., blackbody radiation thought to be emitted outside the black hole’s outermost surface or event horizon). is consistent with
Furthermore, the researchers showed that in the presence of mobile charges, the black hole’s global vortex traps the magnetic flux of the gauge field, leading to the characteristic emission that can be observed experimentally. Therefore, the team’s theoretical predictions may open up new possibilities for observing new types of matter, including milli-charged dark matter.
“Vorticity is a completely new property of black holes at the classical level (that is, if we close our eyes to quantum structures) that is fully characterized by the three entities of mass, spin and charge,” Kühnel said. says. “This is what we’ve learned from textbooks so far. It showed that we need to add vorticity.”
The presence of vortices in black holes, the team theorized, provides a possible explanation for the absence of Hawking radiation in maximally rotating black holes. In the future, this theory may pave the way for new experimental observations and theoretical conclusions.
For example, the vortex structure of black holes could explain the extremely strong magnetic fields emanating from active galactic nuclei in the Universe. Moreover, they may be at the root of almost all known galactic magnetic fields.
“We have only recently established a black hole vorticity field,” added Kühnel. “There are many important and exciting questions to address, including those related to the applications mentioned above. Moreover, future gravitational wave observations of black hole mergers, each containing (multiple of them) vortices, could be an important step towards these new It may open doors and exciting quantum aspects of space-time.”
A black hole gains new power when it spins fast enough
Gia Dvali et al, Vortices in Black Holes, physical review letter (2022). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.061302
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