I discuss how one can apply the covariant formalism developed by Vilkovisky
    and DeWitt to obtain frame invariant fifth force calculations for scalar-tensor
    theories. Fifth forces are severely constrained by astrophysical measurements.
    It was shown previously that for scale-invariant Higgs-dilaton gravity, in a
    particular choice of Jordan frame, the dilaton fifth force is dramatically
    suppressed, evading the observational constraints. Using a geometric approach I
    extend this result to all frames, and show that the usual dichotomy of “Jordan
    frame” versus “Einstein frame” is better understood as a continuum of frames:
    submanifold slices of a more general field space.

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